It is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins.
Arteriovenous malformation is usually present at birth. Trauma can also give rise to AVM. In India fewer than 1 million cases are reported per year. It commonly occurs in brain but it can also occur anywhere else in the body.
Many a times it can have no symptoms but people may experience pain, swelling, bleeding depending on the location of AVM.
Malformation can be arterial, venous or lymphatic. It can also have combination of any three blood vessels.
In children they are commonly seen in face which usually disappears by age of 7.
Surface malformations can be easily diagnose with simple sonography or colour doppler. More complex malformation may require MRI, CT scan or angiography.
Most malformations now a days can be treated without surgery. There are some special injections(embolization) available to treat various malformations.
Commonest form of treatment for surface venous malformation is foam sclerotherapy.
They can also be treated with alcohol, bleomycin ( chemical embolization)
PVA particles or glue
There are some special coils are available to treat more complex malformations.
Many patients require multiple sittings to treat malformations depending on site and extent of the lesion.